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Providing health care is like building a house. The task requires experts, expensive equipment and materials, and a huge amount of coördination. Imagine that, instead of paying a contractor to pull a team together and keep them on track, you paid an electrician for every outlet he recommends, a plumber for every faucet, and a carpenter for every cabinet. Would you be surprised if you got a house with a thousand outlets, faucets, and cabinets, at three times the cost you expected, and the whole thing fell apart a couple of years later? Getting the country’s best electrician on the job (he trained at Harvard, somebody tells you) isn’t going to solve this problem. Nor will changing the person who writes him the check.
One key feature of Mesopotamian life resulted from wars and migrations: in cities, social organization along family or clan lines became obsolete, and professional associations became prominent. Mesopotamian cities absorbed invader cultures while also adapting to them, and ancient Mesopotamian civilizations became multicultural. The first cities also had many problems to solve, such as sanitation, in which the water supply and sewage system had to be separated. Also, in a pattern that continues to this day, upriver settlements usually flushed their sewage into the rivers, as they no longer had to concern themselves with it, but it obviously affected downstream civilizations. In many poor nations today, as major rivers enter the oceans they are virtually open sewers as they become increasingly polluted as rivers pass settlements and cities. Also, is generally considered to be the origin of many epidemic diseases, and the close quarters of urban-living often meant epidemics that decimated urban populations; the in 430 BCE, during the , was one of the earliest recorded epidemics. Filth, pollution, and crowding were major problems for early cities, and life expectancy was always lower in the cities than in the hinterland. Life expectancy in cities did not rise to the hinterlands' until the 20th century. Surplus population from the hinterland repopulated all cities in history until the 20th century.
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When sea levels rise as dramatically as they did in the Cretaceous, coral reefs will be buried under rising waters and the ideal position, for both photosynthesis and oxygenation, is lost, and reefs can die, like burying a tree’s roots. About 125 mya, reefs made by , which thrived on , began to displace reefs made by stony corals. They may have prevailed because they could tolerate hot and saline waters better than stony corals could. About 116 mya, an , probably caused by volcanism, which temporarily halted rudist domination. But rudists flourished until the late Cretaceous, when they went extinct, perhaps due to changing climate, although there is also evidence that the rudists . Carbon dioxide levels steadily fell from the early Cretaceous until today, temperatures fell during the Cretaceous, and hot-climate organisms gradually became extinct during the Cretaceous. Around 93 mya, , perhaps caused by underwater volcanism, which again seems to have largely been confined to marine biomes. It was much more devastating than the previous one, and rudists were hit hard, although it was a more regional event. That event seems to have , and a family of . On land, , some of which seem to have , also went extinct. There had been a decline in sauropod and ornithischian diversity before that 93 mya extinction, but it subsequently rebounded. In the oceans, biomes beyond 60 degrees latitude were barely impacted, while those closer to the equator were devastated, which suggests that oceanic cooling was related. shows rising oxygen and declining carbon dioxide in the late Cretaceous, which reflected a general cooling trend that began in the mid-Cretaceous. Among the numerous hypotheses posited, late Cretaceous climate changes have been invoked for slowly driving dinosaurs to extinction, in the “they went out with a whimper, not a bang” scenario. However, it seems that dinosaurs did go out with a bang. A big one. Ammonoids seem to have been brought to the brink with nearly marine mass extinctions during their tenure on Earth, and it was no different with that late-Cretaceous extinction. Ammonoids recovered once again, and their lived in the late Cretaceous, but the end-Cretaceous extinction marked their final appearance as they went the way of and other iconic animals.
Because of the stupendous energy demands of flight, birds not only have the superior air sac system for breathing, but their , the cell’s energy-generation centers, are far more efficient than mammalian mitochondria. Parrots in captivity can , scientists have noted an , and scientists may discover that wild albatrosses live to be 100 or more, when their tagging programs get that old. The may explain bird longevity, as the efficient mitochondria of birds . The theory is controversial and will be for many years, but I think that an engine analogy can help. A bird is a piece of high-performance biological technology, and when operating at peak output it puts all land-bound animals to shame. But a bird’s metabolism is usually in its slack state, only maximized during flight. Simply put, a bird has a great energy capacity that is rarely used to its fullest. It is like a high-performance engine that rarely runs near its . Such engines will last far longer than those regularly running near redline. High-performance technology that usually “loafs” in its slack state and is rarely taxed is expensive and long-lasting. The increased investment in superior technology allows for high performance and long life. High-quality technology is more economical in the long run, if the initial investment can be afforded.
The Rising Cost of Healthcare Essay
A mass extinction began when humans left Africa and with ancestors of , but it accelerated when that founder group of behaviorally modern humans . They quickly drove the , as well as the and . Once the inhabitable continents were filled with that founder group’s descendants, , humans independently domesticated plants and animals. The mass extinction continued with the Domestication Revolution, but in less spectacular fashion, usually via habitat destruction. The increasing density of human populations became the primary factor in driving other species to extinction, which were often local extinctions. Ancient and particularly drove north-African megafauna to extinction, but there were few other notable mass extinctions until . When they did, the greatest proportional demographic catastrophes since the extinction of all other human species began. Those same three continents earlier robbed of their megafauna were quickly shorn of their human populations, who were and and in the Americas. In the midst of that unprecedented disaster for , . Although industrialization raised the human standard of living as never before, as the energy of hydrocarbon fuels was exploited on a large scale for the first time, it also enabled greater environmental devastation. Humanity has been turning forests into deserts since the first civilizations (, , , , , , , , , ), and the only reason it has not gotten worse during the industrial era, at least in industrialized, nations, is because hydrocarbons instead of wood were burned. The extinction of the , in the midst of , were indicative of the vast damage that industrialized peoples could inflict on Earth’s ecosystems. Industrialization also accelerated Europe’s conquest of the world. It conquered and subjugated and peoples, reducing them to effective slavery and further devastating the ecosystems.
Humans are the large-brained, allegedly sentient species that dominates Earth, and humans have greatly altered evolutionary processes, down to “engineering” the DNA of organisms. We have a “nature” and multi-billion year heritage, as any organism does. How much have we changed ours, and how much do our natures really matter? Can we consciously change our natures or overcome them? The nature/nurture debate is quite old, and as the domestication of plants and animals has demonstrated, or the , nurture can nature by selective breeding at the least. The , as an experiment, and the changes were dramatic. There is plenty about humanity that is nature at work, such as a child's acquisition of language or the urge to procreate (and the related ). Also, a great deal is socially learned. At least half of the variance in human traits such as intelligence and personality has been attributed to genetics, and nearly all the rest is socialization by the peer group (I believe that the , and the guiding role, but that is not scientifically demonstrable, at least today). But few of those scientific findings regarding human nature, if any of them, are relevant to why imperial "entertainment" is no longer . The improvement in standard of living due to increased energy consumption has precipitated many changes in what was once considered human "nature," such as . In a , would the dominant ideologies exalt and ?
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Rising of Healthcare Cost Essay - 757 Words | Cram
As scientists know with mammals, although , it comes with a great energetic cost. As with plants, an animal can spend its on consumption (metabolism) or investment (growth). An intriguing hypothesis is that growing large was part of an energy strategy, as the benefits of size (reduced risk of predation, ease of conserving body heat and consequently less need for a high metabolism, ability to access new food sources, such as foliage high above the ground) outweighed their costs (energy devoted to growth instead of metabolism, the need to constantly feed). Their size and the warm climate meant that large dinosaurs did not need as intense internal energy generation as mammals do, for instance, and dinosaurs may have been , with internal energy regulation greater than , but not as great as (mammals and birds).
The Rising Cost of Healthcare Essay - 1203 Words | Cram
Shell-cracking . By the late Cretaceous, . went extinct after 150 million years of existence, and declined. Those apex predators preyed on and sharks and ray-finned fish always seemed to do well. Some appeared in the mid-Cretaceous that . The largest sea turtles yet recorded lived in the late Cretaceous, .
The Rising Cost of Health Care Essay - 560 Words | …
While oxygen level changes of the model show early fluctuations that the model does not, both models agree on a huge rise in oxygen levels in the late Devonian and Carboniferous, in tandem with collapsing carbon dioxide levels. There is also virtually universal agreement that that situation is due to rainforest development. Rainforests dominated the Carboniferous Period. If the Devonian could be considered terrestrial life’s , then the Carboniferous was its . In the Devonian, plants developed vascular systems, photosynthetic foliage, seeds, roots, and bark, and true forests first appeared. Those basics remain unchanged to this day, but in the Carboniferous there was great diversification within those body plans, and Carboniferous plants formed the foundation for the first complex land-based ecosystems. Ever since the episodes, there has , and the that have prominently shaped Earth’s eon of complex life probably always began with ice sheets at the South Pole, and the current ice age arguably is the only partial exception, but today’s cold period really began about 35 mya, .
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