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Islam and Science Essays - Manyessays
Several historians (e.g., Hooykaas 1972) have argued that Christianity was instrumental to thedevelopment of western science. Peter Harrison (2009) thinks thedoctrine of original sin played a crucial role in this, arguing therewas a widespread belief in the early modern period that Adam, prior tothe fall, had superior senses, intellect, and understanding. As aresult of the fall, human senses became duller, our ability to makecorrect inferences was diminished, and nature itself became lessintelligible. Postlapsarian humans (i.e., humans after the fall) areno longer able to exclusively rely on their a priorireasoning to understand nature. They must supplement their reasoningand senses with observation through specialized instruments, such asmicroscopes and telescopes. As Robert Hooke wrote in the introductionto his Micrographia:
This was not the outcome of a wishy-washy eclecticism, but a realization achieved after years of spiritual experiments that he made with all those religions."
Whilst doubtlessly making no concessions as to their own perceptions of the primacy of Mohammed as Prophet of God it has been the case that several most notable historical figures in the Islamic World have expressed some preparedness to extend a generous toleration to other Faiths.
Comparative essay on islam vs science center
Others authors even go as far as to claim that Christianity was uniqueand instrumental in catalyzing the scientificrevolution—according to Rodney Stark (2004), the scientificrevolution was in fact a slow, gradual development from medievalChristian theology. Claims such as Stark’s, however, fail torecognize the legitimate contributions of Islamic and Greek scholars,to name just a few, to the development of modern science. In spite ofthese positive readings of the relationship between science andreligion in Christianity, there are sources of enduring tension. Forexample, there is (still) vocal opposition to the theory of evolutionamong Christian fundamentalists.
Christian authors in the field of science and religion continue todebate how these two books interrelate. Concordism is the attempt tointerpret scripture in the light of modern science. It is ahermeneutical approach to Bible interpretation, where one expects thatthe Bible foretells scientific theories, such as the Big Bang theoryor evolutionary theory. However, as Denis Lamoureux (2008: chapter 5)argues, many scientific-sounding statements in the Bible are false:the mustard seed is not the smallest seed, male reproductive seeds donot contain miniature persons, there is no firmament, and the earth isneither flat nor immovable. Thus, any plausible form of integratingthe books of nature and scripture will require more nuance andsophistication. Theologians such as John Wesley (1703–1791) haveproposed the addition of other sources of knowledge to scripture andscience: the Wesleyan quadrilateral (a term not coined by Wesleyhimself) is the dynamic interaction of scripture, experience(including the empirical findings of the sciences), tradition, andreason (Outler 1985).
An essay about Islam and Science - شبكة ومنتديات شباب مصر
As noted, most studies on the relationship between science andreligion have focused on science and Christianity, with only a smallnumber of publications devoted to other religious traditions (e.g.,Brooke and Numbers 2011). Relatively few monographs pay attention tothe relationship between science and religion in non-Christian milieus(e.g., Judaism and Islam in Clark 2014). Since western science makesuniversal claims, it is easy to assume that its encounter with otherreligious traditions is similar to the interactions observed inChristianity. However, given different creedal tenets (e.g., in Hindutraditions God is usually not entirely distinct from creation, unlikein Christianity and Judaism), and because science has had distincthistorical trajectories in other cultures, one can expect disanalogiesin the relationship between science and religion in differentreligious traditions. To give a sense of this diversity, this sectionprovides a bird’s eye overview of science and religion inChristianity, Islam, and Hinduism.
Though I have asserted above that in truth a legitimate conflict betweenreligion and science cannot exist, I must nevertheless qualify this assertiononce again on an essential point, with reference to the actual contentof historical religions. This qualification has to do with the conceptof God. During the youthful period of mankind's spiritual evolution humanfantasy created gods in man's own image, who, by the operations of theirwill were supposed to determine, or at any rate to influence, the phenomenalworld. Man sought to alter the disposition of these gods in his own favorby means of magic and prayer. The idea of God in the religions taught atpresent is a sublimation of that old concept of the gods. Its anthropomorphiccharacter is shown, for instance, by the fact that men appeal to the DivineBeing in prayers and plead for the fulfillment of their wishes.
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Comparative essay on islam vs science museum
Introduction to the History of Philosophy (1832)
Whilst he preferred to consult reliable translations Emerson could attempt to read works in French and it is worth noting that he read, and was influenced by ideas offered in, Victor Cousin's "History of Philosophy" prior to the English language edition of 1832 - as this excerpt from a letter to his brother William demonstrates:-
Footnote from - The Collected Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson
English traits, Volume 5
by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Alfred Riggs Ferguson, Joseph Slater - 1971)
Note Emerson's enthusiasm for Cousin's views in this particular sentence:-
We may wonder - did Cousin's metaphysics influence, perhaps significantly, the construction by Emerson of aspects of his own essay, History?
Science vs religion essay - Opt for Professional and …
the supposed conflict between science and religion."
Gould argued that if indeed the polling data was correct ~ and that 80 to 90% of Americans believe in a supreme being, and such a belief is misunderstood to be at odds with evolution ~ then "we have to keep stressing that religion is a different matter, and science is not in any sense opposed to it," otherwise "we're not going to get very far."
He did not, however, consider this proposed diplomatic approach to the resolution to "the supposed conflict between science and religion" to be paramount, writing in 1997: "NOMA represents a principled position on moral and intellectual grounds, not a mere diplomatic stance."
We live in a Physical World which can be meaningfully investigated, and transformed, by physicists, mathematicians, chemists, biologists and engineers but we also live in a Human World which is perhaps open to being "broadly appreciated" by theologians, economists, historians, poets, philosophers and metaphysicians.
Comparative essay on islam vs science articles
Scientific findings and theories relevant to human origins come from arange of disciplines, in particular geology, paleoanthropology (thestudy of ancestral hominins, using fossils and other evidence),archaeology, and evolutionary biology. These findings challengetraditional religious accounts of humanity, including the specialcreation of humanity, the imago Dei, the historical Adam andEve, and original sin.
» Comparative essay on islam vs science channel
Debates on the fall and the historical Adam have centered on how thesenarratives can be understood in the light of contemporary science. Onthe face of it, limitations of our cognitive capacities can benaturalistically explained as a result of biological constraints, sothere seems little explanatory gain to appeal to the narrative of thefall. Some have attempted to interpret the concepts of sin and fall inways that are compatible with paleoanthropology. Peter van Inwagen(2004), for example, holds that God could have providentially guidedhominin evolution until there was a tightly-knit community ofprimates, endowed with reason, language, and free will, and thiscommunity was in close union with God. At some point in history, thesehominins somehow abused their free will to distance themselves fromGod. For van Inwagen, the fall was a fall from perfection, followingthe Augustinian tradition. John Schneider (2014), on the other hand,argues that there is no genetic or paleoanthropological evidence forsuch a community of superhuman beings. Helen De Cruz and Johan DeSmedt (2013) favor an Irenaean, rather than an Augustinianinterpretation of the fall narrative, which does not involve ahistorical Adam, and emphasizes original innocence as the state thathumans had prior to sinning.
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