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Greek Contributions Western Civilization Essay
Although Enlightenment philosophers acknowledged their debt to Newton (the world’s most towering intellectual of his time and one of history’s greatest scientists and mathematicians), he saw nothing improper with the slave trade and in 1720. When machines began reproducing human labor, the abolition of slavery also began, as it made unskilled labor uneconomical. Slavery, particularly the genocidal forms inflicted by Europe, were viable only for situations in which little professional skill was needed. Slavery worked best in mine and plantation work that used illiterate and often-expendable people. What became the USA was unique in the European age of slavery, in that tobacco operations, unlike sugar plantations, had more seasonal labor demands. Moreover, the environment of southeast North America was conducive to long-lived and fertile slaves, so that they could reproduce. Consequently, what became the USA was a , with its large slave population largely bred, not captured. People born into slavery are easier to keep enslaved than those born free, but they had to be kept illiterate and at low skill levels, or else they might desire freedom and obtain it. Late in the American era of slavery, some slaves were taught to read, but generally only one book, which justified slavery: the Bible. All the way to , apologists for slavery used Biblical passages to justify it. Many also justified antebellum slavery with economic arguments, stating that people took better care of something they owned rather than something they rented.
Italian scholars and critics of this period proclaimed that their age had progressed beyond the barbarism of the past and had found its inspiration, and its closest parallel, in the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome." Useful links to the Renaissance in Italy, The Netherlands, Germany, France.
This Essay Greeks Contributions to Civilization and other 62,000 ..
The easily explains the , as well as why they disappeared so quickly along with the other megafauna, but the big game were whales. Whales are an order of magnitude larger than elephants; the largest blue whale is about 25 times the size of today’s largest elephant. at the Roman port of Ostia, and by about 500 CE, whales had been hunted to extinction in the Mediterranean. Until humans achieved the social organization and technological prowess that allowed them to and hunt whales, that energy source remained unexploited. After Rome collapsed, (other than in the , beginning around 1050 CE), when Europeans learned to sail the oceans with history’s greatest energy technology to that time: sailing ships that could navigate the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Compared to the Greeks, Romans were not very innovative; they largely copied the peoples they conquered, but the Romans invent in the first century CE. Just as with those earlier civilizations, as Rome began turning Italy into an arid land, shorn of its forests, Romans began to learn conservation, and they used glass panes and oriented their homes to the Sun, to reduce fuel use. Just like the Greeks, as the forests disappeared, the day’s writers developed a romantic view of forests as places for quiet contemplation and, , wood rustling became a lucrative pastime for the Italian Peninsula’s thieves. The first technology suppression stories that I have heard of came from Rome. wrote that heard that unbreakable and flexible glass was invented and he suppressed it, as it would be more valuable than gold and would wreck the monetary system. was rumored to have rejected a column-moving machine because it would eliminate the need for strong backs and produce unemployment. The stories were probably not true, but such technology suppression “conspiracy theories” have existed for millennia.
Greek contributions to the Western Civilization Essay …
As people fled from the increasingly barren and devastated Fertile Crescent, Bronze Age settlements began growing on the Mediterranean’s east end. During the Babylonian reign of , wood was extremely scarce and his agents were charged with finding more wood. Under Hammurabi, illegal woodcutting was a . The search for wood extended past deforested Lebanon to the Mediterranean’s periphery, and Crete’s inhabitants began to trade wood for luxury items with Near East civilizations. The nearly extinct Near East cedar was reserved for palaces and temples in Mesopotamia, but on Crete, cedar was so abundant that it was used for tool handles and had other mundane purposes. Trade with the Near East quickly boosted Crete from a forested hinterland, isolated in the eastern Mediterranean, into a powerful state, at least while its forests lasted. In early , wood was used lavishly. The Minoan success influenced the nearby Peloponnesian peninsula, and Mycenaean civilization began about 1600 BCE. Minoans developed the still-undeciphered script. Mycenaean Greeks developed , which has been largely decoded and ; it is likely that Linear A also was only accounting. About 1700 BCE, the Minoan palaces were destroyed, probably by an earthquake. The palaces were rebuilt on a grand scale, and settlements expanded in the Minoan golden age, which lasted about three centuries. Then a swift decline collapsed the Minoan civilization by 1200 BCE. Mycenaeans then annexed the island.
Many reasons were proffered to explain the Minoan decline and collapse, including the . What is increasingly cited as the reason for the Minoan decline (and was probably the ultimate reason for its collapse), was that Minoans , primarily via deforestation. Minoans, just as with many other collapsed civilizations, exceeded their land's carrying capacity. For organisms, carrying capacity always meant food and the ability to reproduce, but for civilizations, it also meant the energy needed to run the civilization’s moving parts, including transportation and the energy used to build structures and goods. If we revisit the “” that life faces, whether to use energy to fuel biological processes or build biological structures, civilizations faced the same choice. Humans commandeered the energy that a tree invested in its growth, and there were two basic ways to use it: liberate the energy in the structure by burning it, or use that structure for building human-usable tools or structures, which included buildings and ships. , as did pottery-making and fireplaces and furnaces to heat buildings. Minoans also built a tremendous fleet of ships for trade and military dominance. When rebuilding Minoan palaces, Crete’s inhabitants used wood exuberantly, but by 1500 BCE, the use of wood in palaces declined precipitously, and when Mycenaean Greece annexed Crete, the forests were gone and Greeks used Crete for pasturing their sheep.
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Greek Influence on Western Culture
I know of no more informative contrast between industrial and preindustrial economies than comparing the USA’s North and South on the eve of its Civil War. The North had a vibrant, industrializing economy that quickly became history’s greatest, with its labor nominally free, and the South had a relatively moribund economy based on slave labor. The North used its industrial capacity to grind down the South in a war of attrition, just as . Superior industrial capacity, which is rooted in energy supplies, has won all major wars during the past two centuries. World War I ended when the , and much of the war was devoted to cutting off the other belligerents’ oil supplies. When Germany surrendered, it had one day’s worth of fuel. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 only after the , and Germany lost World War II after its , and the Nazis simply ran out of fuel. Cutting off access to hydrocarbons, oil in particular, was the industrial equivalent of starving out the enemy in a siege, or how continually tried to cut off the other's access to wood. Oil has been humanity’s , and explains imperial meddling and warfare in the Middle East. All other factors are irrelevant or of extremely minor importance and are often promoted in an attempt to deceive uninformed observers such as the American public; proximate causes, if not entirely fictional to begin with, in those delusion-inducing analyses.
Role Of Religion On Western Civilization Free Essays
Copernicus died as his book was being published, and he apparently did not suspect that his work would cause a backlash. However, the path that heliocentric theory took to overcoming dogma, both from the Church the day’s scientists, is one of the greatest cautionary tales in science’s history, and shows how science took misdirections that it has yet to recover from. The , and its list lasted until the 1960s.
Greek contributions to the Western Civilization - …
In 1543, two works widely considered modern science’s first were published. One pertained to astronomy: , a devout Catholic, independently revived the Greek teaching that . The other was the first great work on anatomy, by , which overturned more than a millennium of dogma. In a preview of how the West’s practice of science would progress, the dogmatists that Vesalius offended were not Church officials , who attacked him so viciously that he eventually burned his notes and retired from the field. Most notable pioneers of medicine received , which harkens back to that “” observation.
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