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Give specific examples of how these movements affected the arts.
A common family of arguments, inspired by Wittgenstein’sfamous remarks about games (Wittgenstein 1953), has it that thephenomena of art are, by their nature, too diverse to admit of theunification that a satisfactory definition strives for, or that adefinition of art, were there to be such a thing, would exert astifling influence on artistic creativity. One expression of thisimpulse is Weitz’s Open Concept Argument: any concept isopen if a case can be imagined which would call for some sort ofdecision on our part to extend the use of the concept to cover it, orto close the concept and invent a new one to deal with the new case;all open concepts are indefinable; and there are cases calling for adecision about whether to extend or close the concept of art. Hence artis indefinable (Weitz 1956). Against this it is claimed thatchange does not, in general, rule out the preservation of identity overtime, that decisions about concept-expansion may be principled ratherthan capricious, and that nothing bars a definition of art fromincorporating a novelty requirement.
A fourth sort of argument suggests that a definition of art statingindividually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for a thing tobe an artwork, is likely to be discoverable only if cognitive sciencemakes it plausible to think that humans categorize things in terms ofnecessary and sufficient conditions. But, the argument continues,cognitive science actually supports the view that the structure ofconcepts mirrors the way humans categorize things—which is withrespect to their similarity to prototypes (or exemplars), and not interms of necessary and sufficient conditions. So the quest for adefinition of art that states individually necessary and jointlysufficient conditions is misguided and not likely to succeed (Dean2003). Against this it has been urged that psychological theoriesof concepts like the prototype theory and its relatives can provide atbest an account of how people in fact classify things, but notan account of correct classifications of extra-psychologicalphenomena, and that, even if relevant, prototype theory and otherpsychological theories of concepts are at present too controversial todraw substantive philosophical morals from (Rey 1983; Adajian 2005).
They should be able to work well as part of a team.
Today's generation, like many before and many to come, can attain a better understanding of the present course of history through the study of the past mankind experiences, or Humanities.
Skepticism about the possibility and value of a definition of art hasbeen an important part of the discussion in aesthetics since the 1950son, and though its influence has subsided, uneasiness about thedefinitional project persists. (See section 4, below, and also Kivy1997, and Walton 2007).
The Definition of an Essay Including Writing Resources
Contemporary definitions are of two main sorts. One distinctivelymodern, conventionalist, sort of definition focuses on art’sinstitutional features, emphasizing the way art changes over time,modern works that appear to break radically with all traditional art,and the relational properties of artworks that depend on works’relations to art history, art genres, etc. The less conventionalistsort of contemporary definition makes use of a broader, moretraditional concept of aesthetic properties that includes more thanart-relational ones, and focuses on art’s pan-cultural andtrans-historical characteristics.
With technical assistance from the Office of Digital Humanities, Madden, Spotts, Bulsiewicz and a team of students created a corpus for the Essay Genome Project, a searchable compilation of essays by authors from the past 500 years. Corpus analysis has been previously used for poetry and drama, but the Essay Genome Project is the first to create a corpus for essays.
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Defining Humanities Essay - Anti Essays
On the instrumentalist view, technology differsfrom law and religion, "which cannot be readily transferred to new socialcontexts because they are so intertwined with other aspects of the societiesin which they originate." By contrast, the substantivists, a minority that includes such figuresas Ellul and the later Mumford, argue that technology is a monolithic phenomenonvastly greater than the sum of its parts.
Defining and Experiencing the Humanities - Term Paper
Nonetheless, the nature and impact of technologyhave been examined closely by such writers as Lewis Mumford and JacquesEllul, Roderick Seidenberg, Gilbert Simondon, and Siegfried Gideon, notto mention Heidegger and Marcuse.
Read this essay on Defining and Experiencing the Humanities
A fifth sort of argument concludes that defining art isphilosophically unnecessary, on the grounds that the problemof defining art reduces to a pair of easier sorts of problems: theproblem of giving an account of each individual artform, and theproblem of defining what it is to be an artform. That is, givendefinitions of the individual artforms, and a definition of what it isto be an artform, and given, crucially, that every artwork belongs tosome artform, a definition of art falls out: x is a workof art if and only if x is a work inactivity P, and P is one of the artforms (Lopes2008). Every artwork belongs to an artform, on this view, becauseevery artwork either belongs to an existing artwork or else pioneers anew artform. The key claim that every work of art belonging to noextant artform pioneers a new one may be defended on the grounds thatany reason to say that a work belonging to no extant artform is anartwork is a reason to say that it pioneers a new artform. Inresponse, it is noted that an activity might be ruled out as anartform on the grounds that no artworks belong to it, and that thequestion of whether or not a thing belongs to an artform arises onlybecause there is a prior reason for thinking that the thing is anartwork. So determining whether a practice is an artform requiresdetermining that its elements are artworks. Art, therefore, seemsconceptually prior to artforms. An account of thecomplex analysandum artform seems to require an analysis ofeach component—an analysis of what it is to bean artform no less than an analysis of what it is to be anartform (Adajian 2012).
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A third sort of argument, more historically inflected than the first,takes off from an influential study by the historian of philosophyPaul Kristeller, in which he argued that the modern system of the fivemajor arts [painting, sculpture, architecture, poetry, and music]which underlies all modern aesthetics … is of comparativelyrecent origin and did not assume definite shape before the eighteenthcentury, although it had many ingredients which go back to classical,mediaeval, and Renaissance thought. Since that list of five arts issomewhat arbitrary, and since even those five do not share a singlecommon nature, but rather are united, at best, only by severaloverlapping features, and since the number of art forms has increasedsince the eighteenth century, Kristeller’s work may be taken tosuggest that our concept of art differs from that of the eighteenthcentury. As a matter of historical fact, there simply is no stabledefiniendum for a definition of art to capture.
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