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There has been controversy regarding and even if their disappearance qualifies as a mass extinction. One idea is that their disappearance was due to predation by what became Cambrian fauna, and another is that they ate their food sources to extinction, but it appears more likely that it may have been an extinction . Cambrian fauna filled the vacant niches and then some when the ocean became oxygenated again. Although Ediacaran fauna did not move much, their existence was probably owed to oxygenation of the oceans, and although their metabolisms would have been slow compared to the animals that followed them, they may not have been able to survive in anoxic oceans. Ediacaran anoxic events are also when . The appeared in the Ediacaran, followed by the and the , and those oceanic basins eventually all disappeared and their seafloors were subducted by colliding continents. Those subducted basins became the primary source of Middle East oil, which are extracted from Earth’s most gigantic hydrocarbon deposits.

HHMI shares the latest on our research, education, and organizational news.

Learn about research integrity, responsible conduct of research, and research misconduct, including related policies and regulations, and what you can do to promote research integrity.

Should Animals Be Used for Medical Research

Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.

I was born in 1958. during the , and I was trained from childhood to be a scientist. My first professional mentor , and was an hailed by a federal study as the world’s most promising alternative to the internal combustion engine. In 1974, as that engine created a stir in the USA’s federal government, I began dreaming of changing the energy industry. In that same year, I had my and awakenings. During my second year of college, I had my first existential crisis and a . I still held my energy dreams, however, and in 1986, eight years after that first paranormal event, that suddenly caused me to move up the coast from Los Angeles to Seattle, where I landed in the middle of what is arguably the . The company sold the that has ever been on the world market and it by using the most ingenious marketing plan that I ever saw. That effort was , which saw our technology as a threat to its revenues and profits, and my wild ride began. The owner of the Seattle business left the state to rebuild his effort. I and soon . My partner's experiences in Seattle radicalized him. My use of "radical" intends to convey the original "" meaning. Radicals seek a fundamental understanding of events (so they aim for the root and do not hack at branches), but more economically than in my partner's instance. He would never see the energy industry the same way again after his radicalization (also called "") in Seattle, but he had more radicalization ahead of him.

“Is that a real turkey?” a woman said to her friend as she passed Henry. (No matter what the animal du jour, someone always asked me whether it was real.)

Advances in medical technology are fueled by animal testing

The three Rs are a set of principles that scientists are encouraged to follow in order to reduce the impact of research on animals.

What was most relevant to humans, however, was the almost-complete extinction during the Kellwasser event of the tetrapods that had come ashore. Tetrapods did not reappear in the fossil record until several million years after the Kellwasser event, and has even been referred to as the Fammenian Gap (the is the Devonian’s last age). The Kellwasser event also appeared to be a period of low atmospheric oxygen content, and some evidence is the lack of charcoal in fossil deposits. Recent research has demonstrated that getting wood to burn at oxygen levels of less than 13-15% may be impossible. Because all periods of complex land life show evidence of forest fires, it is today thought that oxygen levels have not dropped below 13-15% since the Devonian, but during the “charcoal gap” of the late Devonian, when the first landlubbing tetrapods went extinct, oxygen levels reached their lowest levels since the , which must have impacted the first animals trying to breathe air instead of water. During the , there is no charcoal evidence at all, which leads to the notion that oxygen levels may have even dropped below 13%. This drop may be related to severe climatic stresses on the new forests, which are probably related to the ice age that the forests helped bring about due to their carbon sequestering. That is an attractively explanatory scenario, but the continues. The first seed plants probably appeared before the Kellwasser event, but it was not until after the Fammenian Gap that seed plants began to proliferate.

The rise of life was based on . Just as the remained basically unchanged since the Cambrian Explosion, energy systems form the foundations for all ecosystems and civilizations. While the superstructure change and can seem radical at times, the foundation dictates what kind of superstructure exist. A huge superstructure built on a small foundation, if it can be built at all, will not be very resilient (the first earthquake or storm levels it), and will not last long. Today, industrialized civilization is burning through its foundational energy sources a million times as fast as they were created and will largely . On the , the rise and fall of humanity may happen in the blink of an eye and create more ecosystem devastation than the asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs; it would happen faster than all previous mass extinctions other than that asteroid’s effect. Arthropods may then come to rule the world once again.

The pharmacologist William D H Carey demonstrated the importance of animal testing in a letter to the British Medical Journal:
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Home - Ethics of Medical Research with Animals

Since mitochondria are the energy generation centers in eukaryotic cells (some , usually because the mitochondria evolved into other organelles such as and ), they present similar issues related to how industrialized humanity generates energy today. Power plants have pollution issues and can explode and create environmental catastrophes such as what happened at .

Ethics of Medical Research with Animals

As with other early life processes, the first photosynthetic process was different from today’s, but the important result – capturing sunlight to power biological processes – was the same. The scientific consensus today is that a respiration cycle was modified, and a in a was used for capturing sunlight. Intermediate stages have been hypothesized, including the cytochrome using a pigment to create a shield to absorb ultraviolet light, or that the pigment was part of an infrared sensor (for locating volcanic vents). But whatever the case was, the conversion of a respiration system into a photosynthetic system is considered to have only happened , and all photosynthesizers descended from that original innovation.

Comparative Essay Animal Rights vs. Medical Testing - …

Kirschvink is a , was soon pursuing other interests, and left his Snowball Earth musings behind. Canadian geologist had been an ardent Arctic researcher, but a dispute with a bureaucrat saw him exiled from the Arctic. He landed at Harvard and soon picked Precambrian rocks in to study, as it was largely unexplored geological territory. The Namibian strata were 600-700 million years old, instead of the two billion years that Hoffman was familiar with. In the Namibian desert, he soon found evidence of glacial till among what were considered tropical strata when created.

Essay against using animals medical research - …

In summary, today’s orthodox late-Proterozoic hypothesis is that the complex dynamics of a supercontinent breakup somehow triggered . The global glaciation was reversed by runaway effects primarily related to an immense increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. During the events, oceanic life would have been delivered vast amounts of continental nutrients scoured from the rocks by glaciers, and the hot conditions would have combined to create a global explosion of photosynthetic life. A billion years of relative equilibrium between prokaryotes and eukaryotes was ultimately shattered, and oxygen levels began rising during the Cryogenian and Ediacaran periods toward modern levels. Largely sterilized oceans, which began to be oxygenated at depth for the first time, are now thought to have prepared the way for what came next: the rise of complex life.

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